Frank Mc Namara is a PhD Researcher at the European University Institute where he pursues research on State responsibility for migration control and border management which has been externalised and/or privatised. Frank previously worked in the Office of the Refugee Applications Commissioner and in the Refugee Appeals Tribunal in Ireland and as a Trainee at the European Commission in the Unit for Border Management Schengen Governance/Relations with Frontex. Frank has also worked as a Research Assistant in the Migration Policy Centre (MPC) in the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies. As a Research Assistant in the MPC, he has researched and written about refugee resettlement in the EU and the detention of third country nationals prior to removal.